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bacon    音標拼音: [b'ekən]
n. 咸肉,熏肉

鹹肉,熏肉

bacon
n 1: back and sides of a hog salted and dried or smoked; usually
sliced thin and fried
2: English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the
importance of experimentation; first showed that air is
required for combustion and first used lenses to correct
vision (1220-1292) [synonym: {Bacon}, {Roger Bacon}]
3: English statesman and philosopher; precursor of British
empiricism; advocated inductive reasoning (1561-1626) [synonym:
{Bacon}, {Francis Bacon}, {Sir Francis Bacon}, {Baron
Verulam}, {1st Baron Verulam}, {Viscount St. Albans}]

Bacon \Ba"con\, n. [OF. bacon, fr. OHG. bacho, bahho, flitch of
bacon, ham; akin to E. back. Cf. Back the back side.]
The back and sides of a pig salted and smoked; formerly, the
flesh of a pig salted or fresh.
[1913 Webster]

{Bacon beetle} (Zool.), a beetle ({Dermestes lardarius})
which, especially in the larval state, feeds upon bacon,
woolens, furs, etc. See {Dermestes}.

{To save one's bacon}, to save one's self or property from
harm or loss. [Colloq.]
[1913 Webster] Bacon


Bacon \Bacon\, Roger Bacon \Roger Bacon\prop. n.
Roger Bacon. A celebrated English philosopher of the
thirteenth century. Born at or near Ilchester, Somersetshire,
about 1214: died probably at Oxford in 1294. He is credited
with a recognition of the importance of experiment in
answering questions about the natural world, recognized the
potential importance of gunpowder and explosives generally,
and wrote comments about several of the physical sciences
that anticipated facts proven by experiment only much later.
[PJC]

The Franciscan monk, Roger Bacon (c. 1214 - 1294) was
an important transitional figure in chemistry as he was
trained in the alchemical tradition, but introduced
many of the modern concepts of experimental science.
Bacon believed that experiment was necessary to support
theory, but for him the theory as presented in the
Bible was true and the experiment only underlined that
truth. One of Bacon's lasting contributions was his
references to gunpowder, bringing this discovery to the
general attention of literate Europeans.
Gunpowder had been known for centuries in China, being
used for fireworks and incendiary grenades. Gunpowder
is a simple mixture of charcoal, sulfur, and potassium
nitrate (known generally as saltpeter). Saltpeter is a
major component of guano (bird droppings) and may be
recovered from privies where it will crystallize. By
1324, Europeans had discovered the art of using
gunpowder to fire a projectile, marking the end of the
period of castles and knights in armor. --Prof. Tom
Bitterwolf,
Univ. of Idaho
(Post-class
notes, 1999).
[PJC]

Roger Bacon was Born at or near Ilchester,
Somersetshire, about 1214: died probably at Oxford in
1294. He was educated at Oxford and Paris (whence he
appears to have returned to England about 1250), and
joined the Franciscan order. In 1257 he was sent by his
superiors to Paris where he was kept in close
confinement for several years. About 1265 he was
invited by Pope Clement IV. to write a general treatise
on the sciences, in answer to which he composed his
chief work, the "Opus Majus." He was in England in
1268. In 1278 his writings were condemned as heretical
by a council of his order, in consequence of which he
was again placed in confinement. He was at liberty in
1292. Besides the "Opus Majus," his most notable works
are "Opus Minus," "Opus Tertium," and "Compendium
Philosophiae." See Siebert, "Roger Bacon," 1861; Held,
"Roger Bacon's Praktische Philosophie," 1881; and L.
Schneider, "Roger Bacon," 1873. --Century
Dict. 1906.
[PJC]

Dr. Whewell says that Roger Bacon's Opus Majus is "the
encyclopedia and Novam Organon of the Thirteenth
Century, a work equally wonderful with regard to its
general scheme and to the special treatises with which
the outlines of the plans are filled up.[sb] The
professed object of the work is to urge the necessity
of a reform in the mode of philosophizing, to set forth
the reasons why knowledge had not made a greater
progress, to draw back attention to the sources of
knowledge which had been unwisely neglected, to
discover other sources which were yet almost untouched,
and to animate men in the undertaking by a prospect of
the vast advantages which it offered.[sb] In the
development of this plan all the leading portions of
science are expanded in the most complete shape which
they had at that time assumed; and improvements of a
very wide and striking kind are proposed in some of the
principal branches of study.[sb] Even if the work had
no leading purposes it would have been highly valuable
as a treasure of the most solid knowledge and soundest
speculations of the time; even if it bad contained no
such details it would have been a work most remarkable
for its general views and scope." --James J.
Walsh
(Thirteenth
Greatest of
Centuries,
1913.
[PJC] Bacon


Bacon \Bacon\, Francis Bacon \Francis Bacon\prop. n.
Francis Bacon. A celebrated English philosopher, jurist, and
statesman, son of Sir Nicholas Bacon. Born at York House,
London, Jan. 22, 1561: died at Highgate, April 9, 1626,
created {Baron Verulam} July 12, 1618, and {Viscount St.
Albans} Jan. 27, 1621: commonly, but incorrectly, called
{Lord Bacon}. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge,
April, 1573, to March, 1575, and at Gray's Inn 1575; became
attached to the embassy of Sir Amias Paulet in France in
1576; was admitted to the bar in 1582; entered Parliament in
1584; was knighted in 1603; became solicitor-general in 1607,
and attorney-general in 1613; was made a privy councilor in
1616, lord keeper in 1617, and lord chancellor in 1618; and
was tried in 1621 for bribery, condemned, fined, and removed
from office. A notable incident of his career was his
connection with the Earl of Essex, which began in July, 1591,
remained an intimate friendship until the fall of Essex
(1600-01), and ended in Bacon's active efforts to secure the
conviction of the earl for treason. (See Essex.) His great
fame rests upon his services as a reformer of the methods of
scientific investigation; and though his relation to the
progress of knowledge has been exaggerated and misunderstood,
his reputation as one of the chief founders of modern
inductive science is well grounded. His chief works are the
"Advancement of Learning," published in English as "The Two
Books of Francis Bacon of the Proficience and Advancement of
Learning Divine and Human," in 1605; the "Novum organum sive
indicia vera de interpretatione naturae," published in Latin,
1620, as a "second part" of the (incomplete) "Instauratio
magna"; the "De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum,"
published in Latin in 1623; "Historia Ventorum" (1622),
"Historia Vitae et Mortis" (1623), "Historia Densi et Rari"
(posthumously, 1658), "Sylva Sylvarum" (posthumously, 1627),
"New Atlantis," "Essays" (1597, 1612, 1625), "De Sapientia
Veterum" (1609), "Apothegms New and Old," "History of Henry
VII." (1622). Works edited by Ellis, Spedding, and Heath (7
vols. 1857); Life by Spedding (7 vols. 1861, 2 vols. 1878).
See Shakspere. --Century Dict. 1906.
[PJC]



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