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software    音標拼音: [s'ɔftw,ɛr] [s'ɔfw,ɛr]
n. 軟件,程序設計

軟體,程式設計

software
軟體

software
軟體

software
n 1: (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules
and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of
a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory;
"the market for software is expected to expand" [synonym:
{software}, {software program}, {computer software},
{software system}, {software package}, {package}] [ant:
{computer hardware}, {hardware}]

(Or "computer program", "program", "code") The
instructions executed by a computer, as opposed to the
physical device on which they run (the "{hardware}").

The term was coined by the eminent statistician, {John Tukey}.

Programs stored on {non-volatile storage} built from
{integrated circuits} (e.g. {ROM} or {PROM}) are usually
called {firmware}.

Software can be split into two main types - {system software}
and application software or {application programs}. System
software is any software required to support the production or
execution of application programs but which is not specific to
any particular application. Examples of system software would
include the {operating system}, {compilers}, editors and
sorting programs.

Examples of application programs would include an accounts
package or a {CAD} program. Other broad classes of
application software include {real-time} software, {business
software}, scientific and engineering software, {embedded
software}, personal computer software and {artificial
intelligence} software.

Software includes both {source code} written by humans and
executable {machine code} produced by {assemblers} or
{compilers}. It does not usually include the data processed
by programs unless this is in a format such as {multimedia}
which depends on the use of computers for its presentation.
This distinction becomes unclear in cases such as {spread
sheets} which can contain both instructions (formulae and
{macros}) and data. There are also various intermediate
compiled or {semi-compiled}, forms of software such as
{library} files and {byte-code}.

Some claim that {documentation} (both paper and electronic) is
also software. Others go further and define software to be
programs plus documentation though this does not correspond
with common usage.

The noun "program" describes a single, complete and
more-or-less self-contained list of instructions, often stored
in a single {file}, whereas "code" and "software" are
uncountable nouns describing some number of instructions which
may constitute one or more programs or part thereof. Most
programs, however, rely heavily on various kinds of {operating
system} software for their execution. The nounds "code" and
"software" both refer to the same thing but "code" tends to
suggest an interest in the implementation details whereas
"software" is more of a user's term.

(2002-07-21)



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