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common    音標拼音: [k'ɑmən]
a. 公共的,共同的,普通的,一般的
n. 平民;公地;眾議院,下院

公共的,共同的,普通的,一般的平民;公地;眾議院,下院

common
共用的

common
公用 共用

common
adj 1: belonging to or participated in by a community as a
whole; public; "for the common good"; "common lands are
set aside for use by all members of a community" [ant:
{individual}, {single}]
2: having no special distinction or quality; widely known or
commonly encountered; average or ordinary or usual; "the
common man"; "a common sailor"; "the common cold"; "a common
nuisance"; "followed common procedure"; "it is common
knowledge that she lives alone"; "the common housefly"; "a
common brand of soap" [ant: {uncommon}]
3: common to or shared by two or more parties; "a common
friend"; "the mutual interests of management and labor" [synonym:
{common}, {mutual}]
4: commonly encountered; "a common (or familiar) complaint";
"the usual greeting" [synonym: {common}, {usual}]
5: being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday
language; "common parlance"; "a vernacular term"; "vernacular
speakers"; "the vulgar tongue of the masses"; "the technical
and vulgar names for an animal species" [synonym: {common},
{vernacular}, {vulgar}]
6: of or associated with the great masses of people; "the common
people in those days suffered greatly"; "behavior that
branded him as common"; "his square plebeian nose"; "a vulgar
and objectionable person"; "the unwashed masses" [synonym:
{common}, {plebeian}, {vulgar}, {unwashed}]
7: of low or inferior quality or value; "of what coarse metal ye
are molded"- Shakespeare; "produced...the common cloths used
by the poorer population" [synonym: {coarse}, {common}]
8: lacking refinement or cultivation or taste; "he had coarse
manners but a first-rate mind"; "behavior that branded him as
common"; "an untutored and uncouth human being"; "an uncouth
soldier--a real tough guy"; "appealing to the vulgar taste
for violence"; "the vulgar display of the newly rich" [synonym:
{coarse}, {common}, {rough-cut}, {uncouth}, {vulgar}]
9: to be expected; standard; "common decency"
n 1: a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area;
"they went for a walk in the park" [synonym: {park}, {commons},
{common}, {green}]

Common \Com"mon\, a. [Compar. {Commoner}; superl. {Commonest}.]
[OE. commun, comon, OF. comun, F. commun, fr. L. communis;
com- munis ready to be of service; cf. Skr. mi to make
fast, set up, build, Goth. gamains common, G. gemein, and E.
mean low, common. Cf. {Immunity}, {Commune}, n. & v.]
1. Belonging or relating equally, or similarly, to more than
one; as, you and I have a common interest in the property.
[1913 Webster]

Though life and sense be common to men and brutes.
--Sir M. Hale.
[1913 Webster]

2. Belonging to or shared by, affecting or serving, all the
members of a class, considered together; general; public;
as, properties common to all plants; the common schools;
the Book of Common Prayer.
[1913 Webster]

Such actions as the common good requireth. --Hooker.
[1913 Webster]

The common enemy of man. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

3. Often met with; usual; frequent; customary.
[1913 Webster]

Grief more than common grief. --Shak.
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4. Not distinguished or exceptional; inconspicuous; ordinary;
plebeian; -- often in a depreciatory sense.
[1913 Webster]

The honest, heart-felt enjoyment of common life.
--W. Irving.
[1913 Webster]

This fact was infamous
And ill beseeming any common man,
Much more a knight, a captain and a leader. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

Above the vulgar flight of common souls. --A.
Murphy.
[1913 Webster]

5. Profane; polluted. [Obs.]
[1913 Webster]

What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common.
--Acts x. 15.
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6. Given to habits of lewdness; prostitute.
[1913 Webster]

A dame who herself was common. --L'Estrange.
[1913 Webster]

{Common bar} (Law) Same as {Blank bar}, under {Blank}.

{Common barrator} (Law), one who makes a business of
instigating litigation.

{Common Bench}, a name sometimes given to the English Court
of Common Pleas.

{Common brawler} (Law), one addicted to public brawling and
quarreling. See {Brawler}.

{Common carrier} (Law), one who undertakes the office of
carrying (goods or persons) for hire. Such a carrier is
bound to carry in all cases when he has accommodation, and
when his fixed price is tendered, and he is liable for all
losses and injuries to the goods, except those which
happen in consequence of the act of God, or of the enemies
of the country, or of the owner of the property himself.


{Common chord} (Mus.), a chord consisting of the fundamental
tone, with its third and fifth.

{Common council}, the representative (legislative) body, or
the lower branch of the representative body, of a city or
other municipal corporation.

{Common crier}, the crier of a town or city.

{Common divisor} (Math.), a number or quantity that divides
two or more numbers or quantities without a remainder; a
common measure.

{Common gender} (Gram.), the gender comprising words that may
be of either the masculine or the feminine gender.

{Common law}, a system of jurisprudence developing under the
guidance of the courts so as to apply a consistent and
reasonable rule to each litigated case. It may be
superseded by statute, but unless superseded it controls.
--Wharton.

Note: It is by others defined as the unwritten law
(especially of England), the law that receives its
binding force from immemorial usage and universal
reception, as ascertained and expressed in the
judgments of the courts. This term is often used in
contradistinction from {statute law}. Many use it to
designate a law common to the whole country. It is also
used to designate the whole body of English (or other)
law, as distinguished from its subdivisions, local,
civil, admiralty, equity, etc. See {Law}.

{Common lawyer}, one versed in common law.

{Common lewdness} (Law), the habitual performance of lewd
acts in public.

{Common multiple} (Arith.) See under {Multiple}.

{Common noun} (Gram.), the name of any one of a class of
objects, as distinguished from a proper noun (the name of
a particular person or thing).

{Common nuisance} (Law), that which is deleterious to the
health or comfort or sense of decency of the community at
large.

{Common pleas}, one of the three superior courts of common
law at Westminster, presided over by a chief justice and
four puisne judges. Its jurisdiction is confined to civil
matters. Courts bearing this title exist in several of the
United States, having, however, in some cases, both civil
and criminal jurisdiction extending over the whole State.
In other States the jurisdiction of the common pleas is
limited to a county, and it is sometimes called a {county
court}. Its powers are generally defined by statute.

{Common prayer}, the liturgy of the Church of England, or of
the Protestant Episcopal church of the United States,
which all its clergy are enjoined to use. It is contained
in the Book of Common Prayer.

{Common school}, a school maintained at the public expense,
and open to all.

{Common scold} (Law), a woman addicted to scolding
indiscriminately, in public.

{Common seal}, a seal adopted and used by a corporation.

{Common sense}.
(a) A supposed sense which was held to be the common bond
of all the others. [Obs.] --Trench.
(b) Sound judgment. See under {Sense}.

{Common time} (Mus.), that variety of time in which the
measure consists of two or of four equal portions.

{In common}, equally with another, or with others; owned,
shared, or used, in community with others; affecting or
affected equally.

{Out of the common}, uncommon; extraordinary.

{Tenant in common}, one holding real or personal property in
common with others, having distinct but undivided
interests. See {Joint tenant}, under {Joint}.

{To make common cause with}, to join or ally one's self with.

Syn: General; public; popular; national; universal; frequent;
ordinary; customary; usual; familiar; habitual; vulgar;
mean; trite; stale; threadbare; commonplace. See
{Mutual}, {Ordinary}, {General}.
[1913 Webster]


Common \Com"mon\, n.
1. The people; the community. [Obs.] "The weal o' the
common." --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

2. An inclosed or uninclosed tract of ground for pleasure,
for pasturage, etc., the use of which belongs to the
public; or to a number of persons.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Law) The right of taking a profit in the land of another,
in common either with the owner or with other persons; --
so called from the community of interest which arises
between the claimant of the right and the owner of the
soil, or between the claimants and other commoners
entitled to the same right.
[1913 Webster]

{Common appendant}, a right belonging to the owners or
occupiers of arable land to put commonable beasts upon the
waste land in the manor where they dwell.

{Common appurtenant}, a similar right applying to lands in
other manors, or extending to other beasts, besides those
which are generally commonable, as hogs.

{Common because of vicinage} or {Common because of
neighborhood}, the right of the inhabitants of each of two
townships, lying contiguous to each other, which have
usually intercommoned with one another, to let their
beasts stray into the other's fields. -

{Common in gross} or {Common at large}, a common annexed to a
man's person, being granted to him and his heirs by deed;
or it may be claimed by prescriptive right, as by a parson
of a church or other corporation sole. --Blackstone.

{Common of estovers}, the right of taking wood from another's
estate.

{Common of pasture}, the right of feeding beasts on the land
of another. --Burill.

{Common of piscary}, the right of fishing in waters belonging
to another.

{Common of turbary}, the right of digging turf upon the
ground of another.
[1913 Webster]


Common \Com"mon\, v. i.
1. To converse together; to discourse; to confer. [Obs.]
[1913 Webster]

Embassadors were sent upon both parts, and divers
means of entreaty were commoned of. --Grafton.
[1913 Webster]

2. To participate. [Obs.] --Sir T. More.
[1913 Webster]

3. To have a joint right with others in common ground.
--Johnson.
[1913 Webster]

4. To board together; to eat at a table in common.
[1913 Webster]

427 Moby Thesaurus words for "common":
Astroturf, Attic, Babbittish, Mickey Mouse, Philistine, Spartan,
absolute interest, accustomed, adequate, all right,
artificial turf, ascetic, associated, austere, average,
back-number, bald, banal, bare, base, baseborn, beggarly,
below the salt, beneath contempt, benefit, besetting, bewhiskered,
bourgeois, bowling green, breezy, bromidic, campy, candid, casual,
central, chaste, cheap, cheesy, civic, civil, claim, classic,
classical, cliched, coacting, coactive, coadjutant, coadjuvant,
coarse, cockney, coefficient, collaborative, collective,
collectivist, collectivistic, colloquial, collusive, combined,
commensal, commonage, commoners, commonly known, commonplace,
commons, communal, communalist, communalistic, communist,
communistic, communitarian, community, commutual, concerted,
concordant, concurrent, concurring, conjoint, conjunct, conniving,
contemptible, contingent interest, conventional, conversational,
cooperant, cooperating, cooperative, corny, corporate,
cosmopolitan, crummy, current, customary, cut-and-dried, declasse,
defiled, demeaning, despicable, direct, disadvantaged, dominant,
down-to-earth, dry, dull, easement, ecumenic, epidemic,
equitable interest, equity, estate, everyday, fade, fairway,
familiar, fellow, flat, fourth-class, frank, frequent,
frequentative, fusty, garden, garden-variety, gaudy, general,
generic, gimcracky, golf course, golf links, good, grassplot,
green, greenyard, grounds, habitual, hack, hackney, hackneyed,
harmonious, harmonized, high-camp, holding, homely, homespun,
household, humble, humdrum, in common, in the shade, inferior,
informal, infra dig, insipid, interest, intermediary, intermediate,
international, irregular, joint, junior, kitschy, lawn, lean, less,
lesser, like, limitation, low, low-camp, low-class, low-grade,
low-pressure, low-quality, low-test, lowborn, lowbred, lower,
lowly, many, many times, matter-of-fact, mean, medial, median,
mediocre, medium, meretricious, middle-class, middle-of-the-road,
middling, minor, miserable, moderate, modest, moth-eaten, mundane,
musty, mutual, national, natural, neat, no great shakes,
nonclerical, noncompetitive, nondescript, nonstandard, normal,
normative, not rare, notorious, of common occurrence, oft-repeated,
oftentime, old hat, open, ordinary, ornery, overused, paltry,
pandemic, paradise, park, part, pathetic, pedestrian, people,
percentage, pitiable, pitiful, plain, plain-speaking, plain-spoken,
plastic, platitudinous, plaza, pleasance, pleasure garden,
pleasure ground, plebeian, plebeians, poetryless, polluted, poor,
pop, populace, popular, predominant, predominating, prescriptive,
prevailing, prevalent, proletarian, prosaic, prosing, prosy,
proverbial, public, public park, punk, pure, pure and simple,
putting green, rampant, rank and file, reciprocal, recurrent,
regnant, regular, regulation, reigning, relaxed, repetitious,
respective, rife, right, right of entry, routine, rubbishy, rude,
ruling, run-of-mine, run-of-the-mill, running, rustic, sad,
satisfactory, scrubby, scruffy, scummy, scurvy, scuzzy,
second rank, second string, second-best, second-class, second-rate,
secondary, seedy, servile, set, settlement, severe, shabby,
shabby-genteel, shared, shoddy, similar, simple, simple-speaking,
sleazy, sober, social, socialistic, societal, sorry, spare, spoken,
square, stake, stale, standard, stark, state, stereotyped, stock,
straightforward, strict settlement, sub, subaltern, subject,
subordinate, subservient, substandard, suburban, sufficient,
supranational, symbiotic, synergetic, synergic, synergistic, tacky,
talked-about, talked-of, tatty, thick-coming, third estate,
third rank, third string, third-class, third-estate, third-rate,
threadbare, timeworn, tinny, tired, tiresome, title, tolerable,
trashy, trite, truistic, trumpery, trust, two-for-a-cent,
two-for-a-penny, two-way, twopenny, twopenny-halfpenny, typical,
unadorned, unaffected, unclean, uncompetitive, unconstrained,
underprivileged, undistinguished, uneducated, unembellished,
uneventful, unexceptionable, unexceptional, unexciting, unfussy,
ungenteel, unidealistic, unimaginative, unimpassioned,
unimpeachable, uninteresting, universal, universally admitted,
universally recognized, unliterary, unnoteworthy, unoriginal,
unpoetic, unpoetical, unrefined, unremarkable, unreserved,
unromantic, unspectacular, unstudied, unvarnished, use, usual,
valueless, vapid, vernacular, vested interest, vile, village green,
vulgar, warmed-over, well-kenned, well-known, well-recognized,
well-understood, well-worn, widely known, wonted, workaday,
workday, worn, worn out, worn thin, worthless, wretched

COMMON. or right of common, English law. An encorporeal hereditament, which
consists in a profit which a man has in the lands of another. 12 S. & R. 32;
10 Wend. R. 647; 11 John. R. 498; 2 Bouv. Inst. 1640, et seq.
2. Common is of four sorts; of pasture, piscary, turbary and estovers.
Finch's Law, 157; Co. Litt. 122; 2 Inst. 86; 2 Bl. Com. 32.
3. - 1. Common of pasture is a right of feeding one's beasts on
another's land, and is either appendant, appurtenant, or in gross.
4. Common appendant is of common right, and it may be claimed in
pleading as appendant, without laying a prescription. Hargr. note to 2 Inst.
122, a note.
5. Rights of common appurtenant to the claimant's land are altogether
independent of the tenure, and do not arise from any absolute necessity; but
may be annexed to lands in other lordships, or extended to other beasts
besides. such as are generally commonable.
6. Common in gross, or at large, is such as is neither appendant nor
appurtenant to land, but is annexed to a man's person. All these species of
pasturable common, may be and usually are limited to number and time; but
there are also commons without stint, which last all the year. 2 Bl. Com.
34.
7. - 2. Common of piscary is the liberty of fishing in another man's
water. lb. See Fishery.
8. - 3. Common of turbary is the liberty of digging turf in another
man's ground. Ib.
9.-4. Common of estovers is the liberty of taking necessary wood-for
the use or furniture of a house or farm from another man's estate. Ib.; 10
Wend. R. 639. See Estovers.
10. The right of common is little known in the United States, yet there
are some regulations to be found in relation to this subject. The
constitution of Illinois provides for the continuance of certain commons in
that state. Const. art. 8, s. 8.
11. All unappropriated lands on the Chesapeake Bay, on the Shore of the
sea, or of any river or creek, and the bed of any river or creek, in the
eastern parts of the commonwealth, ungranted and used as common, it is
declared by statute in Virginia, shall remain so, and not be subject to
grant. 1 Virg. Rev. C. 142.
12. In most of the cities and towns in the United States, there are
considerable tracts of land appropriated to public use. These commons were
generally laid out with the cities or towns where they are found, either by
the original proprietors or by the early inhabitants. Vide 2 Pick. Rep. 475;
12 S. & R. 32; 2 Dane's. Ab. 610; 14 Mass. R. 440; 6 Verm. 355. See, in
general, Vin. Abr. Common; Bac. Abr. Common; Com. Dig. Common; Stark. Ev.
part 4, p. 383; Cruise on Real Property, h.t.; Metc. & Perk. Dig. Common,
and Common lands and General fields.


COMMON, TENANTS IN. Tenants in common are such as hold an estate, real or
personal, by several distinct titles, but by a unity of possession. Vide
Tenant in common; Estate in common.

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