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chancellor    音標拼音: [tʃ'ænsəlɚ] [tʃ'ænslɚ]
n. 長官;大臣;總理

長官;大臣;總理

Chancellor
n 1: the British cabinet minister responsible for finance [synonym:
{Chancellor of the Exchequer}, {Chancellor}]
2: the person who is head of state (in several countries) [synonym:
{chancellor}, {premier}, {prime minister}]
3: the honorary or titular head of a university

Chancellor \Chan"cel*lor\, n. [OE. canceler, chaunceler, F.
chancelier, LL. cancellarius chancellor, a director of
chancery, fr. L. cancelli lattices, crossbars, which
surrounded the seat of judgment. See {Chancel}.]
A judicial court of chancery, which in England and in the
United States is distinctively a court with equity
jurisdiction.
[1913 Webster]

Note: The chancellor was originally a chief scribe or
secretary under the Roman emperors, but afterward was
invested with judicial powers, and had superintendence
over the other officers of the empire. From the Roman
empire this office passed to the church, and every
bishop has his chancellor, the principal judge of his
consistory. In later times, in most countries of
Europe, the chancellor was a high officer of state,
keeper of the great seal of the kingdom, and having the
supervision of all charters, and like public
instruments of the crown, which were authenticated in
the most solemn manner. In France a secretary is in
some cases called a chancellor. In Scotland, the
appellation is given to the foreman of a jury, or
assize. In the present German empire, the chancellor is
the president of the federal council and the head of
the imperial administration. In the United States, the
title is given to certain judges of courts of chancery
or equity, established by the statutes of separate
States. --Blackstone. Wharton.
[1913 Webster]

{Chancellor of a bishop} or {Chancellor of a diocese} (R. C.
Ch. & ch. of Eng.), a law officer appointed to hold the
bishop's court in his diocese, and to assist him in matter
of ecclesiastical law.

{Chancellor of a cathedral}, one of the four chief
dignitaries of the cathedrals of the old foundation, and
an officer whose duties are chiefly educational, with
special reference to the cultivation of theology.

{Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster}, an officer before
whom, or his deputy, the court of the duchy chamber of
Lancaster is held. This is a special jurisdiction.

{Chancellor of a university}, the chief officer of a
collegiate body. In Oxford, he is elected for life; in
Cambridge, for a term of years; and his office is
honorary, the chief duties of it devolving on the vice
chancellor.

{Chancellor of the exchequer}, a member of the British
cabinet upon whom devolves the charge of the public income
and expenditure as the highest finance minister of the
government.

{Chancellor of the order of the Garter} (or other military
orders), an officer who seals the commissions and mandates
of the chapter and assembly of the knights, keeps the
register of their proceedings, and delivers their acts
under the seal of their order.

{Lord high chancellor of England}, the presiding judge in the
court of chancery, the highest judicial officer of the
crown, and the first lay person of the state after the
blood royal. He is created chancellor by the delivery into
his custody of the great seal, of which he becomes keeper.
He is privy counselor by his office, and prolocutor of the
House of Lords by prescription.
[1913 Webster]

121 Moby Thesaurus words for "chancellor":
JA, academic dean, administration, administrator, alderman,
ambassador, ambassadress, amicus curiae, apostolic delegate,
archon, assessor, attache, bailie, barmaster, burghermaster,
burgomaster, cabinet member, cabinet minister, career diplomat,
charge, chief executive, chief executive officer, chief of state,
circuit judge, city councilman, city father, city manager,
commercial attache, commissar, commissioner, consul,
consul general, consular agent, councillor, councilman,
councilwoman, county commissioner, county supervisor, dean,
dean of men, dean of women, dewan, diplomat, diplomatic,
diplomatic agent, diplomatist, doge, elder, emissary, envoy,
envoy extraordinary, executive, executive director,
executive officer, executive secretary, foreign service officer,
grand vizier, head of state, headman, headmaster, headmistress,
induna, internuncio, judge advocate, judge ordinary, jurat,
justice in eyre, justice of assize, lay judge, legal assessor,
legate, legislator, lord mayor, magistrate, maire, management,
managing director, master, mayor, military attache, military judge,
minister, minister of state, minister plenipotentiary,
minister resident, nuncio, officer, official, ombudsman, ordinary,
plenipotentiary, police judge, portreeve, prefect, premier,
president, presiding judge, prexy, prime minister, principal,
probate judge, provost, puisne judge, recorder, rector, reeve,
resident, secretary, secretary of legation, secretary of state,
selectman, supervisor, syndic, the administration, treasurer,
undersecretary, vice-chancellor, vice-consul, vice-legate,
vice-president, warden

Chancellor
one who has judicial authority, literally, a "lord of
judgement;" a title given to the Persian governor of Samaria
(Ezra 4:8, 9, 17).

CHANCELLOR. An officer appointed to preside over a court of chancery,
invested with various powers in the several states.
2. The office of chancellor is of Roman origin. He appears, at first,
to have been a chief scribe or secretary, but he was afterwards invested
with judicial power, and had superintendence over the other officers of the
empire. From the Romans, the title and office passed to the church, and
therefore every bishop of the catholic church has, to this day, his
chancellor, the principal judge of his consistory. When the modern kingdoms
of Europe were established upon the ruins of the empire, almost every state
preserved its chancellor, with different jurisdictions and dignities,
according to their different constitutions. In all he seems to have had a
supervision of all charters, letters, and such other public instruments of
the crown, as were authenticated in the most solemn manner; and when seals
came into use, he had the custody of the public seal.
3. An officer bearing this title is to be found in most countries of
Europe, and is generally invested with extensive authority. The title and
office of chancellor came to us from England. Many of our state
constitutions provide for the appointment of this officer, who is by them,
and by the law of the several states, invested with power as they provide.
Vide Encyclopedie, b. t.; Encycl.. Amer. h.t.; Dict. de Jur. h.t.; Merl.
Rep. h.t.; 4 Vin. Ab. 374; Blake's Ch. Index, h.t.; Woodes. Lect. 95.



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